Historical Perspective

It was on 27th October in 1947 that Indian troops landed in Srinagar and subjugated major part of Jammu and Kashmir against the aspirations of Kashmiri people and in total disregard to the Partition Plan of the Indian Subcontinent. Every year, the day is marked by total strike and different functions and anti-India rallies in the occupied territory, Azad Jammu and Kashmir and the world capitals. This year too, the Kashmiris are observing October 27 as the Black Day to demonstrate to the world that they will never yield to Indian repression.
The people of Kashmir, in fact, became the victims of a conspiracy hatched by Indian leaders and the then British rulers. According to the Indian Independence Act and the Partition Plan of 1947 the Indian British Colony was to be divided into two sovereign states, India, with Hindu-majority areas, and Pakistan, with the Muslim-majority areas of Western provinces and East Bengal.
In the Partition Plan the then princely states were given the choice to accede either to Pakistan or India on the basis of their geographical situation and communal demography. But India landed its Army and forcibly occupied three of the princely states Jammu and Kashmir, Hyderabad and Junagarh. Hyderabad and Junagarh had Hindus in majority but their rulers were Muslims. Jammu and Kashmir with an overwhelming Muslim-majority had a natural tendency to accede to Pakistan, but its Hindu ruler destroyed the future of Kashmiri people by announcing its accession to India under the Instrument of Accession, a controversial document, the existence of which has been denied by many neutral observers and historians.
History stands testimony to the harsh reality that partition of the British India was not just and had it been done on the principles of justice then India had no terrestrial route to enter into the state of Jammu and Kashmir. The so-called Boundary Commission, headed by British Barrister, Cyril Radcliff, which demarcated partition line, under a conspiracy split a Muslim majority area, Gurdaspur, and handed it over to India, providing it land access to Jammu and Kashmir.
The brave people of Kashmir, right from the day one, did not accept India’s illegal occupation and waged a forceful struggle with full public support in 1948. Sensing defeat to its forces in Kashmir, India approached the UN Security Council to seek help of the World Body to settle the dispute. The UN Security Council passed successive resolutions nullifying Indian invasion and occupation of Kashmir. It also approved a ceasefire, demarcation of the ceasefire line, demilitarization of the state and a free and impartial plebiscite to be conducted under the supervision of the UN. Although the ceasefire and demarcation of the ceasefire line was implemented while demilitarization of the territory and a free and impartial plebiscite under supervision of the World Body remain unimplemented till date. As a result of this demarcation, about 139,000 square kilometers area of Jammu and Kashmir remained with India while 83,807 square kilometers constituted the territory of Azad Jammu and Kashmir.
The deplorable aspect of the picture is that Indian rulers promised before the UN to resolve the dispute and give the Kashmiris an opportunity to decide their fate by themselves, but later backed away from their commitments. Seeing zero response from India to all peaceful means and efforts aimed at settling the lingering dispute, the people of Kashmir started an armed struggle in 1989, which continued till 2008 and in the due course of time hundreds of thousands of Kashmiris laid down their precious lives. This movement gathered momentum with the passage of time and pushed the Indian authorities to wall, forcing them to start negotiations with Pakistan in January 2004. The talks, with certain hiccups, still continue at different levels but all these engagements have remained confined to mere handshakes and photo-sessions with no substantial success yet.
There was a transformation of the movement in 2009 when people started a new uprising on totally peaceful pattern. Hundreds of thousands of Kashmiri people started marching on the streets demanding liberation from Indian bondage. A senior APHC leader, Sheikh Abdul Aziz, got martyred when he was leading a big procession moving towards the Line of Control dividing Jammu and Kashmir in two parts. In 2010, 122 peaceful protesters were shot dead by Indian police personnel.
The continued denial of right to self-determination to the people of Jammu and Kashmir by New Delhi has put the peace, security and stability of the entire South Asia at stake. Following the acquiring of nuclear capabilities by Pakistan and India, Kashmir has become a flashpoint and may cause a nuclear war between the two arch-rivals which could lead to a catastrophe in the region. Although Pakistan has been showing considerable flexibility in the dialogue process by floating various proposals, India continues with its constant rigid and stubborn approach with regard to the Kashmir dispute frustrating all sincere and serious efforts made by the international community during the last more than six decades to settle it.